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Romania Country in SE Europe, bounded N and E by Ukraine, E by Moldova, SE by the Black Sea, S by Bulgaria, SW by Yugoslavia, and NW by Hungary.

• government
Under the 1991 constitution, Romania has a limited presidential political system. There is a two-chamber legislature, comprising a 341-member chamber of deputies (lower chamber), in which additional seats are set aside for minorities, and a 143-member senate (upper chamber). Both are elected for four-year terms by means of proportional representation in multiparty contests. An executive president is directly elected for a four-year term in a two-round majority contest. The president appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints a cabinet, or council of ministers.

• history
The earliest known inhabitants merged with invaders from Thrace. Ancient Rome made it the province of Dacia; the poet Ovid was one of the settlers, and the people and language were Romanized. After the withdrawal of the Romans AD 275, Romania was occupied by Goths, and during the 6th-12th centuries was overrun by Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, and other invaders. The principalities of Wallachia in the south, and Moldavia in the east, dating from the 14th century, fell to the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries. Turkish rule was exchanged for Russian protection 1829-56. In 1859 Moldavia and Wallachia elected Prince Alexander Cuza, under whom they were united as Romania from 1861. He was deposed 1866 and Prince Charles of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen elected. After the Russo-Turkish war 1877-78, in which Romania sided with Russia, the great powers recognized Romania's independence, and in 1881 Prince Charles became King Carol I.